Building Material Testing


Building Material Testing

DEEPA ENTERPRISES TESTING LABORATORIES is committed to provide Testing Solutions with cutting edge technology and marvellous analysis and observations to the clients with an objective to help them take informed decisions so as to re-inforce trust, increase productivity and minimize cost.

We view ourselves as partners with our clients, our employees, our community and our environment.

We are experience in testing wide range of construction materials,including Cement,Concrete, Aggregates, Admixture, Flyash, Masonary, Tiles, Wood, Steel, Aluminium, Bircks, Query stones,WMM, GSB and many more.

Our team of consultants and technologists create customized testing programs to meet the demands of manufacturers having proprietory products.

Rebound Hammer Test

Rebound Hammer Test is done to find out the compressive strength of concrete by using Rebound Hammer as per IS:13311 (Part 2) – 1992. The rebound of an elastic mass depends on the hardness of the surface against which its mass strikes. When the plunger of the rebound hammer is pressed against the surface of the concrete, the pring-controlled mass rebounds and the extent of such a rebound depends upon the surface hardness of the concrete.

Core Cutting Test on Concrete
This is a partially destructive test that is used to co-relate the various other properties of the concrete viz. UPV, electrical resistivity, rebound number etc.Concrete core drilling for strength determination is again dependent upon various factors for reliability. The conversion of concrete core (typically 3 or 4 inch diametercore) strength into 150 mm saturated cube strength depends upon :

Effect of Coring
Shape Factor
Size Effect
Direction of Coring W.R.T. Placing of Concrete
H/D Ratio

Cement Testing :-
- Fly Ash Based Cement
- Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC)
- Slag

Marble & Tiles :-
- Clay Roofing Tile
- Chequered / Terrazzo Tile
- Ceramic Tile
- PVC Flooring tile
- Roofing Slate Tiles
- Unglazed Acid Resisting Tile
- Earthernware Tiles

- Kota Stone
- Red Sand Stone
- Lime / Sand Stone
- Kerb Stone
- Marble Stone
- Granite Stone

Interlocking Paver Block

- Paver Block
- Vitrified Tiles
- Laterite Stone
- Aggregate :-
- Coarse Aggregate
- Fine Aggregate/ Stone Dust

- Sand For Plaster


- Flush Door Shutter / Glazed Shutter
- Wood
- Pre Laminated Particle Board
- Medium Density Fiberboard (Laminated / Without Laminated)
- Fiberglass Reinforced Polyester

All Type of Plywoods
- Gypsum Board
- Bitumen Mix Filler Board
- Veneered Particle Board
- Block Board
- Fibre Board
- Wooden Flooring

Bricks :-

- Clay Brick
- Fire / Acid Resistance Brick
- Fly Ash/ Lime Brick
- Sand Lime bricks
- Building Bricks
- Facing Bricks
- Paving Bricks
- Sewar Bricks

The main purpose of load testing of bridges is to evaluate the performance of existing bridges. This category includes new bridges which are still not open for public, bridges that are already in service and bridges after reconstruction or strengthening. There are two main types of load testing of bridges used in practice, proof and diagnostic load testing. Proof load testing is very useful for the evaluation of bridges when information related to the capacity of the bridge is insufficient. For example, when plans or the results of a structural analysis are not available or when it is difficult to estimate the level of deterioration and material degradation in old bridges (Lantsoght et al., 2017b). The main objective is to check if the bridge can carry a certain load level without damage and fulfill the requirements of the code. The load levels used for the proof load testing are higher than the levels of diagnostic load testing (Lantsoght et al., 2017a). The determination of the target proof load includes multiplying nominal values of the traffic load with proof load factors. Significant efforts are made toward standardization of this type of load testing (Lantsoght et al., 2018).

Diagnostic load testing, on the other hand, is used to verify the assumptions made in analytical models related to the stiffness of the bridge. These models are usually simple linear elastic, three-dimensional finite element (FE) models (Lantsoght et al., 2017a). The differences between calculated and measured values are often due to an inaccurate representation of the geometry, boundary conditions and materials in FE models (Bagge et al., 2018). This type of load testing can also be used to evaluate if the bridge structure is in the elastic range, especially after a reconstruction or strengthening (Olaszek et al., 2014). Diagnostic load testing is usually performed prior to opening to the public as well as after a reconstruction or strengthening of the bridge. It is still a common practice in Croatia and has been so for decades. Existing bridges are tested according to the requirements of the Croatian standard HRN U.M1.046:1984 which is referred to in the Technical regulation for building structures (Official Gazette 17/17). The standard requires static load testing of all road bridges with the length L ≥ 15 m and for all railway bridges with the length L ≥ 10 m. The standard also requires dynamic load testing for all bridges. Prior to the actual load testing of the bridge it is necessary to draw up a load testing program which defines the methodology of testing. For that purpose, it is necessary to assess the project documentation and consider the bridge type, materials and reconstruction or strengthening interventions.

In order to meet future demands on the European railway network, i.e., increased loads and higher speeds it is important to collect information and upgrade the existing railway bridges. Developing new monitoring systems and field testing methods of railway bridges is of great importance (Olofsson et al., 2005). In recent years, several steel railway bridges underwent diagnostic load testing after strengthening in Croatia (Damjanović et al., 2016a,b; Marendić et al., 2017).

This paper presents useful methods of assessing the condition of a damaged steel railway bridge before, during and after reconstruction. In order to evaluate the elastic behavior of the material, a method of determining residual stresses by the hole-drilling strain gauge method was implemented (ASTM E837, 2013). Further, a short-term monitoring system was installed at critical cross-sections during the reconstruction of the bridge in order to measure strain. After the reconstruction of the bridge, a diagnostic load testing was performed together with the static and dynamic numerical analysis.

The article is structured as follows. The description of the railway bridge is given in Section Description of the Railway Bridge. The outline of the method of determining the residual stresses is given in Section Method of Determining the Residual Stresses with the results in Section Strain Measurement Results and the Calculation of Stresses. Measurement parameters and the assessment criteria for the diagnostic load testing according to the relevant standard are given in Section Measurement Parameters and Assessment Criteria According to the Standard. The measurement setup and the results are presented in Section Static Load Testing and Results for the static load testing and in Section Dynamic Measurements and Results for the dynamic load testing.

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