Imported COAL


Imported COAL

DEEPA ENTERPRISES TESTING LABORATORIES is of the firm opinion, that human resource is the most important asset of a company. At DEEPA ENTERPRISES TESTING LABORATORIES, continuous on the job training of its employees, is an integral part of its routine activities. Training activity also includes training for special courses and exposure to various seminars and workshops.

DEEPA ENTERPRISES TESTING LABORATORIES has highly experienced analyst who provides Coal testing, Coke Testing and Activated Carbon, Carbon Powder, Carbon Black Testing with complete accuracy and reliability.

DEEPA ENTERPRISES TESTING LABORATORIES is a delhi based test house having skilled professionals for coal & coal products testing lab in delhi, who closely interact with the customers according to their requirements. Apart from this, instruments are designed using the latest technology in accordance with the set industry norms. In addition to this, the services offered by us on regular basis & are available at market leading prices.

Coal is one of the primary sources of electricity in India and abroad. It is a non-renewable source of energy. The major contribution towards our country's energy/power requirements comes from combustion of Coal. A substantial quantity of coal has also to be imported from other countries, in order to fulfill the ever-increasing energy demands of our country. Other important uses of coal include manufacturing of Steel, Cement, fertilizers, paper, ceramics, and other industrial items. Coal also finds use as a liquid fuel and as a fuel for domestic/household consumption. Coke is generally formed by destructive distillation of coal, has a higher Carbon content, and it finds use mainly in Steel manufacturing in blast furnaces.

Although there are other sources of energy like petroleum and natural gas, the advantage that Coal offers relative to them is its ease of combustion and the high calorific/heat value associated with it. Coal occurs in four main types or ranks: Lignite or brown coal, bituminous or black coal, anthracite and graphite. These ranks are a result of the geological process that has occurred over time, and they have different physical and chemical properties which can be verified by proper testing techniques.

Importance of Coal Testing

The results of Coal testing are utilized mainly for characterization, commercial grading or assigning ranks, and deciding the utilization for different purposes. There are basically two types of analysis conducted on coal: one is the'Proximate Analysis' and the other is 'Ultimate Analysis'. These tests determine different parameters, and the results from Proximate Analysis determine the rank of Coal and some important indicators related to the commercial value of coal, like heating/Calorific value and application in boilers.DEEPA ENTERPRISES TESTING LABORATORIES . conducts testing of Coal, Coke and other fuels as per various national and international standards in the most scrupulous manner ensuring flawless accuracy in the test results.

Some of the Common Tests conducted on Coal include

Calorific value(Gross/net)

Proximate analysis- Moisture,Volatile matter, Ash and Fixed Carbon

Ultimate analysis - C,H, O, N, S and Ash.

Ash analysis - Al2O3, SiO2, CaO, MgO,TiO2, Na2O, K2O, S etc.,

Ash Fusion Temperature

Coke Reactivity

Hard-grove Grindability Index



Angle of Repose


Crucible Swelling Index/Free Swelling Index

Major Equipments Used

Bomb Calorimeter

Carbon & Hydrogen determination apparatus

Proximate Analyzer

Ash Fusion Temperature apparatus/Ash Fusion Tester

Testing parameters

Dried Moisture, Ash content, Fixed carbon, Volatiles, Sieve analysis, Iodine value, MB Value, Acid Value, KMNO4 Value, pH value, Net Calorific value, Gross Calorific Value, Chloride content, sulphate content, Moisture.

Calorific value (Gross/Net):
The calorific value of a fuel is the amount of heat released by its combustion – at under regular state and constant pressure.

Test Method:

Proximate analysis – Moisture, Volatile matter, Ash and Fixed Carbon:
Proximate analysis indicates the percentage by weight of the Fixed Carbon, Volatiles, Ash, and Moisture Content in coal. The quantity of volatile combustible matter and fixed carbon directly play a part in the heating of coal. Fixed carbon plays a significant role in heating the coal during burning whereas ignition of fuel is influenced by volatile matter content. The ash content also plays an important role in designing furnace grate, pollution control equipment, ash handling systems of a furnace and combustion volume.

Test Method:

Ultimate Analysis:
The ultimate analysis indicates the various elemental chemical constituents such as Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Sulphur, etc. It helps understand the amount of air necessary for the composition and volume of the combustion gases. This information is needed for the measurement of flue duct design, flame temperature, etc.

Test Method:

Ash analysis:
Ash content of coal is the non-combustible residue left after coal is burnt. It represents the bulk mineral matter after carbon, oxygen, sulfur and water (from clays) has been driven off during combustion. When the coal is thoroughly burnt, ash material is quantified as a percentage of the original weight and this output is analysed.

Test Method:

Ash Fusion Temperature:
The behaviour of coal’s ash residue at high temperature is a critical factor in selecting coals for steam power generation. Most furnaces are designed in a manner that can remove ash residue. Coal ash that converts into a clinker which is hard glassy slag is usually requires cleaning and is unsatisfactory. By removing molten liquid, furnaces can handle the clinker. In a high-temperature furnace, ash fusion temperatures are analysed by viewing a moulded specimen through an observation window.

Chemical Laboratory Chemical analysis of coal is essential for characterization, utilisation, commercial grading and marketing purposes. For utillisation of coal in different industries such as power, steel, cement, fertilizer, railways, domestic consumption, brick kiln, textile, sugar, tea, glass, pottery, refractory, carbon industries and other chemical industries, characterization of coal is essential.

The broad activity of the chemical laboratory starts from collection of coal samples from different sources viz. coal core, ROM samples, channel samples etc to analyse of various parameters.

Sampling & Sample Preparation

Sampling of Coal / Lignite
Preparation and Processing of Samples

Chemical Analysis for Coking and Non-coking Coal & Lignite

Proximate analysis by both conventional & microprocessor based equipments
Moisture% at 60% RH & 400C
Calorific Value
Ultimate analysis & Carbonate CO2
Ash Analysis & Ash Fusion Temperature Range (AFTR)
LTGK Coke Type & Swelling Index
Plastometric Study
Specific Gravity


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